Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, înnobilat în anul 1782 (n. 28 august 1749, Frankfurt am Main – d. 22 martie 1832, Weimar) a fost un poet german, ilustru gânditor și om de știință, una dintre cele mai de seamă personalități ale culturii universale. Lines from Faust, such as "Das also war des Pudels Kern", "Das ist der Weisheit letzter Schluss", or "Grau ist alle Theorie" have entered everyday German usage. [105] He said in Scientific Studies: We conceive of the individual animal as a small world, existing for its own sake, by its own means. On 14 October 1772 Goethe held a gathering in his parental home in honour of the first German "Shakespeare Day". Author of. But that in my century I am the only person who knows the truth in the difficult science of colours—of that, I say, I am not a little proud, and here I have a consciousness of a superiority to many. In old age, he explained why this was so to Eckermann: How could I write songs of hatred when I felt no hate? The first production of Richard Wagner's opera Lohengrin took place in Weimar in 1850. "[24], After 1793, Goethe devoted his endeavours primarily to literature. [77] Goethe's unorthodox religious beliefs led him to be called "the great heathen" and provoked distrust among the authorities of his time, who opposed the creation of a Goethe monument on account of his offensive religious creed. During the course of his trip Goethe met and befriended the artists Angelica Kauffman and Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, as well as encountering such notable characters as Lady Hamilton and Alessandro Cagliostro (see Affair of the Diamond Necklace). This collaborative friendship lasted until Schiller's death in 1805. After being translated into English by Charles Eastlake in 1840, his theory became widely adopted by the art world, most notably J. M. W. Referat über Goethe // Der Tragödie zweiter Teil HD (2/2) - Duration: 4:00. "[63], Born into a Lutheran family, Goethe's early faith was shaken by news of such events as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and the Seven Years' War. (The Duke at the time was 18 years of age, to Goethe's 26.) [100] Matthew Arnold found in Goethe the "Physician of the Iron Age" and "the clearest, the largest, the most helpful thinker of modern times" with a "large, liberal view of life. He produced volumes of poetry, essays, criticism, a theory of colours and early work on evolution and linguistics. She was emotionally distraught at the time, but they were eventually reconciled.[21]. At the same time, though, he seriously studied alchemy and may already have formed the idea of writing a play about Faust, a half-legendary figure who sells his soul to the Devil for knowledge and power and who became the subject of Goethe’s greatest work. Eckermann closes his famous work, Conversations with Goethe, with this passage: The morning after Goethe's death, a deep desire seized me to look once again upon his earthly garment. The nobility and the grand and petty sovereigns who figured so much in Goethe’s later life had no part in his early experiences: he was a town child from a rich family in an essentially middle-class world. [107][108] Both Diderot and Goethe exhibited a repugnance towards the mathematical interpretation of nature; both perceived the universe as dynamic and in constant flux; both saw "art and science as compatible disciplines linked by common imaginative processes"; and both grasped "the unconscious impulses underlying mental creation in all forms. Liszt and Mahler both created symphonies in whole or in large part inspired by this seminal work, which would give the 19th century one of its most paradigmatic figures: Doctor Faustus. [64][65][66] He was one of the central figures in a great flowering of a highly influential Neo-Spinozism[67][68][69] which occurred in German philosophy and literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Genre/Form: Academic theses: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Plagens, Hermann. I wished for a lock of his hair; but reverence prevented me from cutting it off. Return to Weimar and the French Revolution (1788–94), https://www.britannica.com/biography/Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe, Poetry Foundation - Biography of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The University of Adelaide - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, AllMusic - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Academy of American Poets - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theatre Database - Biography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Rüdiger Bernhardt lehrte neuere und neueste deutsche sowie skandinavische Literatur an Universitäten des In- und Auslandes. [9] Among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would later reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit. In 1823, having recovered from a near fatal heart illness, the 74-year-old Goethe fell in love with the teenaged Ulrike von Levetzow whom he wanted to marry, but because of the opposition of her mother he never proposed. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong."[92]. [104] However, he was critical of Bacon's inductive method and approach based on pure classification. The next work, his epic closet drama Faust, was completed in stages. He claims to deduce from it that the barometric level varies in the same proportion not only in each zone but that it has the same variation, too, at different altitudes above sea-level". V šestnácti letech začal … Dieses Vermögen ermöglichte auch seinem Sohn ein Leben ohne finanzielle Schwierigkeiten. Goethe, like Shakespeare and Dante, is among the few writers who define the Western tradition. The short epistolary novel, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, or The Sorrows of Young Werther, published in 1774, recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide. Another emotional factor in the poet’s childhood that may have affected his later development was a love-hate relationship with a younger brother, who died in 1759 at age six: Goethe’s later relationships with literary contemporaries were ambiguous, though he nonetheless described them as “brothers,” and he was repelled by literary and artistic representations of death. His poetry was set to music by almost every major Austrian and German composer from Mozart to Mahler, and his influence would spread to French drama and opera as well. [31], The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were Götz von Berlichingen (1773), a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) (1774), which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the Sturm und Drang period which marked the early phase of Romanticism. Although the accuracy of Goethe's observations does not admit a great deal of criticism, his aesthetic approach did not lend itself to the demands of analytic and mathematical analysis used ubiquitously in modern Science. Their last meeting in Carlsbad on 5 September 1823 inspired him to the famous Marienbad Elegy which he considered one of his finest works. Goethe was vehemently opposed to Newton's analytic treatment of colour, engaging instead in compiling a comprehensive rational description of a wide variety of colour phenomena. The breast was powerful, broad, and arched; the arms and thighs were elegant, and of the most perfect shape; nowhere, on the whole body, was there a trace of either fat or of leanness and decay. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Goethe's six-volume autobiography, Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (1811-22; trans. 1685 zog er nach Frankfurt am Main und unterhielt hier eine florierende Schneiderei. In acel moment Faust face un pact cu diavolul : diavolul face tot ceea ce ii spune Faust sa faca atat timp cat diavolul este pe pamant, iar in schimb Faust ii spune ca il va servi in iad. His written account of these events can be found within his Complete Works. Later, a facet of its plot, i.e., of selling one's soul to the devil for power over the physical world, took on increasing literary importance and became a view of the victory of technology and of industrialism, along with its dubious human expenses. In many respects, he was the originator of many ideas which later became widespread. Beethoven declared that a "Faust" Symphony would be the greatest thing for art. Steiner elaborated on that in the books The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception[52] and Goethe's World View,[53] in which he characterizes intuition as the instrument by which one grasps Goethe's biological archetype—The Typus. [51] In the Kurschner edition of Goethe's works, the science editor, Rudolf Steiner, presents Goethe's approach to science as phenomenological. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he had no need, at least in the first half of his life, to seek princely patronage of his writing or employment as an official or an academic. His focus on morphology and what was later called homology influenced 19th century naturalists, although his ideas of transformation were about the continuous metamorphosis of living things and did not relate to contemporary ideas of "transformisme" or transmutation of species. [17] Despite the immense success of Werther, it did not bring Goethe much financial gain because copyright laws at the time were essentially nonexistent. While in Southern Italy and Sicily, Goethe encountered, for the first time genuine Greek (as opposed to Roman) architecture, and was quite startled by its relative simplicity. Operele sale au rămas la fel de pătrunzătoare ca în tinereţe, dovedind un real talent şi o minte care refuza să îmbătrânească. His works include: four novels; epic and lyric poetry; prose and verse dramas; memoirs; an autobiography; literary and aesthetic criticism; and treatises on botany, anatomy, and colour. 1749 ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe[a] (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. He continued, "Pederasty is as old as humanity itself, and one can therefore say, that it resides in nature, even if it proceeds against nature....What culture has won from nature will not be surrendered or given up at any price. Preview referat: Faust de Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77). Goethe obtained a copy of the biography of a noble highwayman from the German Peasants' War. Als Naturforscher kam er zu bedeutenden Erkenntnissen. Goethe, aside from official duties, was also a friend and confidant to the Duke, and participated fully in the activities of the court. Goethe's influence was dramatic because he understood that there was a transition in European sensibilities, an increasing focus on sense, the indescribable, and the emotional. Some well-known quotations are often incorrectly attributed to Goethe. [102] He emphasized Goethe's "cultural and self-developing individualism", humanism, and cosmopolitanism.[102]. Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, on August 28, 1749, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was tutored extensively in languages as a child. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Italian Journey only covers the first year of Goethe's visit. Goethe clearly saw human sexuality as a topic worthy of poetic and artistic depiction, an idea that was uncommon in a time when the private nature of sexuality was rigorously normative. Thus...[not] the question, What are they for? August 1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. Although in his academic work he had expressed the ambition to make jurisprudence progressively more humane, his inexperience led him to proceed too vigorously in his first cases, and he was reprimanded and lost further ones. Er bemühte sich um eine Position im Frankfurter Rathaus; doch er wurde abgelehnt. [94][96] Goethe always spoke of Napoleon with the greatest respect, confessing that "nothing higher and more pleasing could have happened to me in all my life" than to have met Napoleon in person. In the last period, between Schiller's death, in 1805, and his own, appeared Faust Part One, Elective Affinities, the West-Eastern Diwan (a collection of poems in the Persian style, influenced by the work of Hafez), his autobiographical Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (From My Life: Poetry and Truth) which covers his early life and ends with his departure for Weimar, his Italian Journey, and a series of treatises on art. It was Christiane who commanded and organized the defense of the house on the Frauenplan. His father had made a similar journey during his own youth, and his example was a major motivating factor for Goethe to make the trip. [citation needed], To the period of his friendship with Schiller belong the conception of Wilhelm Meister's Journeyman Years (the continuation of Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship), the idyll of Hermann and Dorothea, the Roman Elegies and the verse drama The Natural Daughter. [94][95] Goethe came away from the meeting deeply impressed with Napoleon's enlightened intellect and his efforts to build an alternative to the corrupt old regime. [3], A literary celebrity by the age of 25, Goethe was ennobled by the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Karl August, in 1782 after taking up residence in Weimar in November 1775 following the success of his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774). He was fascinated by mineralogy, and the mineral goethite (iron oxide) is named after him. Suicide is considered sinful by Christian doctrine: suicides were denied Christian burial with the bodies often mistreated and dishonoured in various ways; in corollary, the deceased's property and possessions were often confiscated by the Church. Na studiích ve Štrasburku se seznámil s J. G. Herderem - filosofem, spisovatelem a literárním vědcem, s nímž stál u zrodu hnutí Sturm und Drang (Bouře a vzdor). [109], See Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bibliography, "Goethe" and "Göte" redirect here. 8. Followers of the twentieth century esotericist Rudolf Steiner built a theatre named the Goetheanum after him—where festival performances of Faust are still performed. Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77), for whom he felt an intense affection of whose potentially incestuous nature he seems to have been aware. Title: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In the literary culture of the German-speaking countries, he has had so dominant a position that, since the end of the 18th century, his writings have been described as “classical.”. Goethe's preoccupation with and reverence for Spinoza are well known and documented in the history of Western thought. More importantly, however, the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann had provoked a general renewed interest in the classical art of ancient Greece and Rome. In 1765, therefore, Goethe left home to study law in Leipzig. The intimate bond with von Stein lasted for ten years, after which Goethe abruptly left for Italy without giving his companion any notice. p. 343, Scientific Studies, Suhrkamp ed., vol. Sein Vater, Johann Caspar Goethe (1710-1782) war Jurist, lebte aber von seinem Vermögen, so dass er nicht zu Arbeiten hatte. In 1774 he wrote the book which would bring him worldwide fame, The Sorrows of Young Werther. [34] However, Goethe explained his use of Werther in his autobiography. Again during the Siege of Mainz, he assisted Carl August as a military observer. 12, p. 121; trans. [83] Goethe sympathized with the American Revolution and later wrote a poem in which he declared "America, you're better off than our continent, the old. On a trip to the village Sessenheim, Goethe fell in love with Friederike Brion, in October 1770,[13][14] but, after ten months, terminated the relationship in August 1771. [10] He adored Caritas Meixner (1750–1773), a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would later marry the merchant G. F. Externally, some parts may seem useless because the inner coherence of the animal nature has given them this form without regard to outer circumstance. Früher u.d.T. During his first meeting with Napoleon in 1808, the latter famously remarked: "Vous êtes un homme (You are a man)! Late at night they burst into his bedroom with drawn bayonets. Goethe's poetic work served as a model for an entire movement in German poetry termed Innerlichkeit ("introversion") and represented by, for example, Heine. In camera de studiu a lui Faust, cainele se transforma in Mephisto. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s father, Johann Caspar Goethe (1710–82), was a man of leisure who lived on an inherited fortune. Český-jazyk.cz - ČTENÁŘSKÝ DENÍK - výběr z děl od spisovatele: Johann Wolfgang Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe > German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher, one of the greatest figures in Western literature. Freddie Ireland; 2 Life. Homology, or as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire called it "analogie", was used by Charles Darwin as strong evidence of common descent and of laws of variation. Douglas Miller, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, "Goethe und Carl August – Freundschaft und Politik", "The auto-biography of Goethe. Goethe finished Faust Part Two in the year of his death, and the work was published posthumously. Die Romantik BIOGRAFIE Der Erlkönig Notiere mit! But it was not to last long. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text. Goetha přitahovala anglická literatura, zejména dílo Shakespearovo, které mu zosobňovalo ideál tvůrčí svobody. The Lover’s Caprice), begun in 1767. Goethe's father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house (today the Goethe House) in Frankfurt, then an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire. He was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. He writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, and the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, and then of the 'Aeneid' and Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'. Goethe took revenge by starting his first mature play, Die Mitschuldigen (1787; “Partners in Guilt”), a verse comedy showing a woman’s regrets after a year of marriage to the wrong man. From this milieu came Johann Georg Schlosser (who was later to become his brother-in-law) and Johann Heinrich Merck. Er war Schneider von Beruf und arbeitete mehrere Jahre in Frankreich. "[98] Staël's portrayal helped elevate Goethe over his more famous German contemporaries and transformed him into a European cultural hero. "[78], Politically, Goethe described himself as a "moderate liberal. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, (born August 28, 1749, Frankfurt am Main [Germany]—died March 22, 1832, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar), German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist, considered the greatest German … Mit dem Erbe konnte sich Goethes Vater, Johann Caspar Goethe, bereits im Alter von 32 Jahren zur Ruhe setzen und seinen Interessen nachgehen. Reluctantly and with some delay, Goethe followed his father’s prescription, although he did not complete the final stages until some years after his father’s death. Vol. Goethe, now in his seventies, was greatly impressed by the child, leading to perhaps the earliest confirmed comparison with Mozart in the following conversation between Goethe and Zelter: "Musical prodigies ... are probably no longer so rare; but what this little man can do in extemporizing and playing at sight borders the miraculous, and I could not have believed it possible at so early an age." Nachher bekommt ihr einige Fragen zum Gesagtem. The novel remains in print in dozens of languages and its influence is undeniable; its central hero, an obsessive figure driven to despair and destruction by his unrequited love for the young Lotte, has become a pervasive literary archetype. "[93] The two discussed politics, the writings of Voltaire, and Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther, which Napoleon had read seven times and ranked among his favorites. Letter to Boisserée dated 22 March 1831 quoted in Peter Boerner, McCabe, Joseph. Schopenhauer cited Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse and Don Quixote. Johann Wolfgang Goethe Jeden z největších světových básníků, mnohostranný umělec, myslitel a vědec se narodil 28. 1749 ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem. Johann reflected, "There is nothing more charming to see than a mother with her child in her arms, and there is nothing more venerable than a mother among a number of her children. Goethe's words inspired a number of compositions by, among others, Mozart, Beethoven (who idolised Goethe),[37] Schubert, Berlioz and Wolf. The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane. His faithful servant, Frederick, opened for me the chamber in which he was laid out. [57], Goethe was a freethinker who believed that one could be inwardly Christian without following any of the Christian churches, many of whose central teachings he firmly opposed, sharply distinguishing between Christ and the tenets of Christian theology, and criticizing its history as a "hodgepodge of fallacy and violence". Bug Yoda 3,522 views. The author W. Daniel Wilson [de] claims that Goethe engaged in negotiating the forced sale of vagabonds, criminals, and political dissidents as part of these activities.[22]. [108], His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. His other compositions inspired by Goethe include the overture Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage (Op. [46], In 1810, Goethe published his Theory of Colours, which he considered his most important work. Updates? In 1919, the world premiere complete production of Faust was staged at the Goetheanum. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768. Familia cultivată Johann Wolfgang von Goethe s-a născut pe 28 august 1749, în oraşul Frankfurt.